Patents

Patents are legal documents drawn up by inventors and lawyers and granted by various patent offices around the world, to protect the inventors' intellectual property. The short description accompanying each patent in this Patents section is therefore taken from the legal document as is, with minor corrections for Greek symbols and obvious spelling errors. The patents included in this section may be for material products (defensins or defensin-like peptides or nucleic acid sequences, synthetic or natural) or for novel methods of detecting, quantitating, synthesizing, or delivering antimicrobial peptides/nucleic acid sequences in general. The curators' criterion for inclusion in this section is broader for novel methods than for material products, in the hope that these methods may in future be similarly applied to defensins.

Patents in which the defensins or defensin-like material products and methods as above are not novel, such as biomarker sets containing unmodified defensin or defensin-like peptides or oligonucleotides, are excluded from this section. The exception to such exclusions is where the patent provides other novel defensin-related material products or methods in addition to those non-novel of the biomarker set itself. This exclusion is because the reasonable presence of defensin or defensin-like sequences or indeed any other sequences in patented biomarker sets is necessarily attributed to some prior discovery of disease state correlation with such sequences. The curators have observed therefore that the novel discovery in biomarker-related patents is often the method of biomarker array analysis and validation as well as its resultant implications for diagnostics and prognostics. The expert evaluation of such biomarker analysis and validation is well outside the scope of the Defensins Knowledgebase. The reader is respectfully referred to a biomarker database specific to the disease to perform his own assessment of the validity of the biomarker.

Methods not pertaining to the antimicrobial activity of defensins, but where defensins or antimicrobial peptides or small cationic peptides or disulphide-bonded peptides or their respective nucleic acid sequences are suggested in some unambiguous detail to play a useful role in the method, with or without supporting experimental evidence, are included as well in this section. Patents in which natural defensins are up/downregulated in a clearly defined signal transduction pathway as a result of the unrelated patented novel compound or method are also included. And lastly, all patents showing experimental work done with defensins or antimicrobial peptides or small cationic peptides or disulphide-bonded peptides or their respective nucleic acid sequences, where such peptides or nucleic acid sequences are not the experimental controls, are included without exception.

The data in this section have been extracted from the academic version of SciFinder Scholar 2007 and from public Google search - a wide range of defensin-related patents are included.

Keywords:

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Last updated: 20th February 2008

Patents
Patent No.: WO 009175
Synthetic peptides.
Applicant: Posthuma GA, Schaaper WMM, Sijtsma L, Van Amerongen A, Fant F, Borremans FAM, Rees SB, Osborn RW (2001)
A modified cysteine-contg. antimicrobial peptide derived from a plant defensin, said modification comprising (a) introducing more than 1 cysteine residue and/or (b) replacing or altering more than 1 cysteine residue to block their ability to form disulfide bridges. The modified peptides can have improved antimicrobial activity.

Patent No.: WO 009174
Antimicrobial protein and peptide analogs of plant defensins for pharmaceutical and agricultural use.
Applicant: Posthuma GA, Schaaper WMM, Sijtsma L, Van Amerongen A, Fant F, Borremans FAM (2001)
An antimicrobial protein or peptide derived from a plant defensin, or a deriv. thereof, characterized in that said protein or peptide comprises one or more of the following replacement amino acid residues selected from the group consisting of: (i) a tryptophan residue at position 32; (ii) a valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine or histidine residue at position 34. (iii) an isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine, arginine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine or histidine residue at position 35; (iv) a tryptophan residue at position 36; (v) a tryptophan, glycine, threonine, tyrosine, glutamine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine or histidine residue at position 37; (vi) a leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, valine, or cysteine residue at position 38. (vii) a leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, arginine, tyrosine or histidine residue at position 39; (viii) a tryptophan residue at position 40; (ix) an isoleucine, a tryptophan, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, glutamine, asparagine, lysine, arginine, histidine at position 41. And/or (x) a valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, lysine, arginine, serine or threonine residue at position 42; where said amino acid residues are not found naturally at said positions in the antimicrobial protein or peptide, with the proviso that the antimicrobial proteins do not comprise only a replacement arginine residue at position 37, 39 or 42. These proteins or peptides are useful in agriculture and pharmaceuticals.

Patent No.: US 6174664
Screening method for inflammatory diseases using neutrophil defensins and lactoferrin.
Applicant: Heine RP (2001)
The author discloses a method of screening for the presence of inflammatory diseases. The method involves measuring the concn. of neutrophil defensins HNP1-3 and the concn. of lactoferrin, found in a bodily fluid, tissue or a combination thereof, and correlating the measurement to control levels give an indication of risk of inflammatory disease. In one example, screening of amniotic fluid for elevated levels of lactoferrin and neutrophil defensins allows for the diagnosis of intraamniotic infection.

Patent No.: US 6300489
cDNA molecules encoding Capsicum annuum a defensin and thionin-like protein, their sequences and induction from incompatible interactions with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Applicant: Oh B-J, Ko MK, Shin B (2001)
The invention provides two Capsicum annuum cDNA mols., designated PepDef (pepper defense protein gene) and PepThi (pepper thionin-like protein gene), which encode a defensin and thionin-like protein. The cDNA mols. were isolated from the incompatible interaction between C. annuum and the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides using mRNA differential display. The invention also provides the complete cDNA sequence, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequence of the thionin-like protein encoded by the PepThi clone. The invention further provides the cDNA sequence of the defensin encoded by the PepDef clone, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequence of the defensin. The invention provides vectors and transformed plants comprising said genes or part thereof. In the example section, the invention looked at the expression pattern of these cDNA clones, and expression induced by fungal infection and wounding. The results of the expression studies suggest that PepThi and PepDef genes are developmentally regulated during fruit ripening, organ-specifically regulated, and differentially induced during the compatible and incompatible interactions. The results also suggest that PepThi and PepDef genes: (1) may be involved in the defense mechanism during fruit ripening against the phytopathogen, and (2) expressed via different signal transduction pathways during ripening.

Patent No.: JP 288105
Antibacterial peptides for the treatment of periodontitis.
Applicant: Abiko Y, Kaku T, Nishimura T, Arakawa T, Taguma Y, Nakajima K, Owashi Y, Mizoguch I (2001)
This invention relates to the use of human beta-defensin 1 and human beta-defensin 2 for the treatment of periodontitis by incorporating them in food, medications, or dentifrices. Also, genetic vectors expressing human defensins are used for the same purposes. Antibacterial activities of beta-defensin 1 and 2 against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were demonstrated. A dental cream contg. glycerin 85, human beta-defensin-1 0.01, beta-defensin-2 0.01, xanthan gum 4, NaCl 0.48, and distd. water 10.5 %, successfully controlled the gum inflammation and bad breath.

Patent No.: EP 448511
Anti-pathogenically effective compositions comprising lytic peptides and hydrolytic enzymes.
Applicant: Ryals JA, Gay PB, Ahl Goy PA, Garcia-Olmedo F (2001)
A compn. for controlling plant pathogens comprises more than 1 cell membrane-degrading components, e.g. defensins, and more than 1 hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinase. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase of C2H2-treated bean leaves were purified and combined with various synthetic lytic peptides, e.g. barley thionin beta or melittin. These compns. inhibited the growth of Septoria nodorum. Binary vectors contg. a gene for one of the enzymes or for a lytic peptide were prepd. and procedures for transformation of plant cells and regeneration of transgenic plants were described.

Patent No.: EP 1146052
Protein and cDNA sequences of arthropod defensins.
Applicant: Presnail JK, Weng Z, Wong JF (2001)
This invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid fragment encoding a defensin. The invention also relates to the construction of a chimeric gene encoding all or a portion of the defensin, in sense or antisense orientation, wherein expression of the chimeric gene results in prodn. of altered levels of the defensin in a transgenic plant.

Patent No.: EP 1101771
cDNA molecules encoding Capsicum annuum a defensin and thionin-like protein, their sequences and induction from incompatible interactions with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Applicant: Oh B-J, Ko MK, Shin B, Chung CH (2001)
The invention provides two Capsicum annuum cDNA mols., designated PepDef and PepThi, which encode a defensin and thionin-like protein. The cDNA mols. were isolated from the incompatible interaction between C. annuum and the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides using mRNA differential display. The invention also provides the complete cDNA sequence, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequence of the thionin-like protein encoded by the PepThi clone. The invention further provides the partial cDNA sequence (missing the 5' and 3'-untranslated regions) of the defensin encoded by the PepDef clone, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequence of the defensin. In the example section, the invention looked at the expression pattern of these cDNA clones, and expression induced by fungal infection and wounding. The results of the expression studies suggest that PepThi and PepDef genes are developmentally regulated during fruit ripening, organ-specifically regulated, and differentially induced during the compatible and incompatible interactions. The results also suggest that PepThi and PepDef genes: (1) may be involved in the defense mechanism during fruit ripening against the phytopathogen, and (2) expressed via different signal transduction pathways during ripening.

Patent No.: WO 078983
Protein and cDNA sequences of sunflower anti-pathogenic proteins and genes and their uses in plant disease control.
Applicant: Bidney DL, Crasta OR, Duvick JP, Hu X, Lu G (2000)
Compns. and methods to aid in protecting plants from invading pathogenic organisms are provided. The compns. of the invention comprise anti-pathogenic genes, including 5' regulatory sequences in the promoter, and proteins encoded by the anti-pathogenic genes. Particularly, protein and cDNA sequences of sunflower RP5-1, defensin, and berberine bridge enzyme (BBE) homologues, and fragments and variants thereof, are provided. The compns. find use in methods for reducing or eliminating damage to plants caused by plant pathogens. Transformed plants, plant cells, tissues, and seed having enhanced disease resistance are also provided.

Patent No.: WO 071175
Ophthalmic solutions incorporating an antimicrobial polypeptide.
Applicant: Tuse D, Mortelmans K, Hokama LA, Selsted ME, Chapoy LL, Quinn MH (2000)
This invention provides a novel antimicrobial system suitable for formulation in a wide variety of ophthalmic solns. In particular the compn. comprises an antimicrobial peptide that is an indolicidin and a buffer compatible with application to a mammalian eye, wherein the buffer is a Good's buffer or the buffer has a halide ion concn. less than 0.85 wt%. The compns. are useful for storing, cleaning, or disinfecting a contact lens. In particular the compns. are self-preserving upon lengthy storage, effective in cleaning and sterilizing contact lenses upon exposure of the lens to the compn., do not require the need for phys. or thermal treatment of the lens and enable the immediate application of the lens to the eye without the need for neutralization, deactivation or washing. For example, an indolicidin ophthalmic soln. was prepd. by dissolving 0.005 g of indolicidin in 10 mL distd. water, dilg. the soln. with a phosphate buffer to 100 mL, and adding 8.7 g of NaCl and 0.25 g of Poloxamer.